Trascendencia del microquimerismo fetal en las enfermedades autoinmunes

Luis Felipe Arias-Ruiz, Javier Contreras-Cárdenas, Pablo Mondragón-Ratkovich, María Luisa Ramos-Ibarra, Olivia Torres Bugarin

Resumen

Con frecuencia durante el embarazo ocurre exportación de células, algunas del sistema inmune, tanto de la madre al feto como del feto a la madre. Éstas pueden ser células madre que al cruzar la barrera placentaria e ingresar al cuerpo del anfitrión pueden instalarse en distintos órganos y persistir por décadas. Así, un individuo podría poseer una pequeña población de células y por ende ácidos nucleicos de otro genéticamente diferente. A este fenómeno se le conoce como microquimerismo (MC). Las consecuencias del MC no están claras, pero se plantea que podría tener efectos benéficos, dañinos o podría ser que no tenga efecto alguno, inclusive pudiera ser que estas tres hipótesis no sean mutuamente excluyentes, todo según las circunstancias. Por otro lado, las mujeres en edad fértil tienen mayor riesgo que los hombres de desarrollar alguna enfermedad autoinmune, y este riesgo es significativamente mayor en el primer año posterior al parto. Existen evidencias de que el MC puede estar asociado al desarrollo de algunas enfermedades autoinmunes, debido a que las células T inmaduras quiméricas dentro de los tejidos del anfitrión podrían activarse y liberar citocinas inflamatorias y quimiocinas que están involucradas en los procesos de autoinmunidad. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar las evidencias que apoyan la teoría de que el MC está relacionado con este grupo de enfermedades como el síndrome de Sjögren, esclerosis sistémica, lupus eritematoso sistémico y artritis reumatoide.

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