Critical review of clinical trials regarding Vitamin D supplementation

Gumersindo Vazquez-Castillo, Alfonso Murillo-Uribe, Osvaldo Huchim-Mendez, Rafael G Coral-Cardenas, Nina Mendez-Dominguez


ABSTRACT. Vitamin D is supplemented in individuals with or without risk factors for deficiency, although its effects at specific doses and frequency are controversial. In consequence, we aimed to perform an exhaustive review on the effects of vitamin D supplementation in randomized clinical trials in adult patients, grouped by target system and the evaluation criteria established in the objectives, by searching clinical trials published in the last 5 years in PubMed and EBSCO are included, with the keywords "vitamin D supplementation" AND effect, in English or Spanish, excluding participants <19 years Our initial search yielded 91 results from two databases, of which 71 included studies. A total of 24 articles published a significant effect of vitamin D supplementation. Significant effects were identified in 3 of 4 studies in postmenopausal patients on bone density and/or strengthening of the musculoskeletal system. Other statistically significant effects were observed with supplementation in patients with high body mass index, in glucose control and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. We conclude that randomized clinical trials show significant effects in different organs and systems, the effect on glycemic control is promising, even when overrepresenting specific human groups.

Resumen. La vitamina D se suplementa en individuos con o sin factores de riesgo de deficiencia, aun cuando sus efectos a dosis y frecuencia específicos son controvertidos. En consecuencia, nos planteamos el objetivo de revisar exhaustivamente los efectos de la suplementación con vitamina D en los ensayos clínicos aleatorizados en pacientes adultos, agrupados por sistema blanco y a los criterios de valoración establecida en los objetivos. En la búsqueda se incluyeron los ensayos clínicos publicados en los últimos 5 años en PubMed y EBSCO, con las palabras clave “vitamina D suplementación” y “efecto”, en inglés o español, excluyendo a los participantes <19 años. Como resultado, la búsqueda inicial arrojó 91 resultados de dos bases de datos, de ellos 71 estudios incluidos. Un total de 24 artículos publicaron un efecto significativo de la suplementación de vitamina D. Los efectos significativos se identifican en 3 de 4 estudios en pacientes posmenopáusicas sobre la densidad ósea y/o fortalecimiento del sistema musculoesquelético. Otros efectos significativos se observaron con la suplementación en pacientes con índice de masa corporal elevada, en el control de la glucosa y los niveles de hemoglobina glucosilada. En conclusión, los ensayos clínicos aleatorizados muestran efectos significativos en diferentes órganos y sistemas. El efecto sobre el control glucémico es prometedor aun cuando existen grupos humanos sobrerrepresentados.


Hahn J, Cook NR, Alexander EK, Friedman S, Walter J, Bubes V, et al. Vitamin D and marine omega 3 fatty acid supplementation and incident autoimmune disease: VITAL randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2022 Jan 26;376:e066452. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-066452.

Trummer C, Schwetz V, Kollmann M, Wölfler M, Münzker J, Pieber TR, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS: a randomized-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Aug;58(5):2019-2028. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1760-8.

Miao J, Bachmann KN, Huang S, Su YR, Dusek J, Newton-Cheh C, et al. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cardiovascular and Glycemic Biomarkers. J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 May 18;10(10):e017727. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.017727.

Cojic M, Kocic R, Klisic A, Kocic G. The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Metabolic and Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A 6-Month Follow Up Randomized Controlled Study. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Aug 19;12:610893. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.610893.

Valero MÁ, F. Hawkins F. Metabolism, endogenous and exogenous sources of vitamin D. REEMO. 2007;16(4):63-70. doi: 10.1016/S1132-8460(07)73506-7.

Yin L, Ordóñez-Mena JM, Chen T, Schöttker B, Arndt V, Brenner H. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration and total cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2013;57 (6):753-764. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.08.026

Zhang R, Li B, Gao X, Tian R, Pan Y, Jiang Y, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of cardiovascular disease: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105(4):810-819. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.140392

Méndez-Sánchez L, Clark P, Winzenberg TM, Tugwell P, Correa-Burrows P, Costello R. Calcium and vitamin D for increasing bone mineral density in premenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2023 Jan 27;1(1):CD012664. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012664.pub2.

Rizzoli, R. Dairy products and bone health. Aging Clin Exp Res 34, 9–24 (2022). doi: 10.1007/s40520-021-01970-4

Ottanelli S. Prevention and treatment of bone fragility in cancer patient. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2015 May-Aug;12(2):116-29. doi: 10.11138/ccmbm/2015.12.2.116.

Fujihara N, Fujihara Y, Hamada S, Yoshida M, Tsukushi S. Current practice patterns of osteoporosis treatment in cancer patients and effects of therapeutic interventions in a tertiary center. PLoS One. 2021 Mar 11;16(3):e0248188. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248188.

Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation: cholecalciferol, calcifediol, and calcitriol. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020 Nov;74(11):1493-1497. doi: 10.1038/s41430-020-0697-1.

Chang SW, Lee HC. Vitamin D and health - The missing vitamin in humans. Pediatr Neonatol. 2019 Jun;60(3):237-244. doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2019.04.007.

Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, Greenberg L, Aloia JF, Bergman P, Dubnov-Raz G, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2019 Jan;23(2):1-44. doi: 10.3310/hta23020.

Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Bjelakovic M, Gluud C. Vitamin D supplementation for chronic liver diseases in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 3;11(11):CD011564. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011564.pub2. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Aug 25;8:CD011564.

Charoenngam N, Kalajian TA, Shirvani A, Yoon GH, Desai S, McCarthy A, et al. A pilot-randomized, double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of orally administered 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D3 in healthy adults with differing BMI and in adults with intestinal malabsorption. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Sep 1;114(3):1189-1199. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab123.

Angellotti E, D'Alessio D, Dawson-Hughes B, Chu Y, Nelson J, Hu P, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes. Clin Nutr. 2019 Oct;38(5):2449-2453. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.10.003.

Hu KL, Gan K, Wang R, Li W, Wu Q, Zheng B, et al. Vitamin D supplementation prior to in vitro fertilisation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a protocol of a multicentre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMJ Open. 2020 Dec 8;10(12):e041409. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041409.

Naderpoor N, Mousa A, Fernanda Gomez Arango L, Barrett HL, Dekker Nitert M, de Courten B. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Faecal Microbiota: A Randomised Clinical Trial. Nutrients. 2019 Nov 27;11(12):2888. doi: 10.3390/nu11122888.

Mercante G, Anelli A, Giannarelli D, Giordano D, Sinopoli I, Ferreli F, et al. Cost-effectiveness in transient hypocalcemia post-thyroidectomy. Head Neck. 2019 Nov;41(11):3940-3947. doi: 10.1002/hed.25934.

Zittermann A, Ernst JB, Prokop S, Fuchs U, Dreier J, Kuhn J, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and bone turnover in advanced heart failure: the EVITA trial. Osteoporos Int. 2018 Mar;29(3):579-586. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-4312-9.

Billington EO, Burt LA, Plett R, Rose MS, Boyd SK, Hanley DA. Effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on peripheral arterial calcification: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2020 Nov;31(11):2141-2150. doi: 10.1007/s00198-020-05500-2.

Abdollahi R, Abiri B, Sarbakhsh P, Kashanian M, Vafa M. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplement Consumption on Premenstrual Syndrome in Vitamin D-Deficient Young Girls: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Complement Med Res. 2019;26(5):336-342. English. doi: 10.1159/000500016.

Jabbour J, Rahme M, Mahfoud ZR, El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Effect of high dose vitamin D supplementation on indices of sarcopenia and obesity assessed by DXA among older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Endocrine. 2022 Apr;76(1):162-171. doi: 10.1007/s12020-021-02951-3.

Lerchbaum E, Trummer C, Theiler-Schwetz V, Kollmann M, Wölfler M, Pilz S, et al. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Turnover and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Men: A Post-Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2019 Mar 29;11(4):731. doi: 10.3390/nu11040731.

Lerchbaum E, Theiler-Schwetz V, Kollmann M, Wölfler M, Pilz S, Obermayer-Pietsch B, et al. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Surrogate Markers of Fertility in PCOS Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 7;13(2):547. doi: 10.3390/nu13020547.

Lerchbaum E, Trummer C, Theiler-Schwetz V, Kollmann M, Wölfler M, Heijboer AC, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on androgens in men with low testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Dec;58(8):3135-3146. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1858-z.

Lerchbaum E, Trummer C, Theiler-Schwetz V, Kollmann M, Wölfler M, Pilz S, et al. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Body Composition and Metabolic Risk Factors in Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2019 Aug 14;11(8):1894. doi: 10.3390/nu11081894.

Trummer C, Theiler-Schwetz V, Kollmann M, Wölfler M, Münzker J, Pilz S, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and endocrine parameters in healthy premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2020 Mar;39(3):718-726. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2019.03.007.

Cefalo CMA, Conte C, Sorice GP, Moffa S, Sun VA, Cinti F, et al. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018 Apr;26(4):651-657. doi: 10.1002/oby.22132.

Perić M, Maiter D, Cavalier E, Lasserre JF, Toma S. The Effects of 6-Month Vitamin D Supplementation during the Non-Surgical Treatment of Periodontitis in Vitamin-D-Deficient Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients. 2020 Sep 25;12(10):2940. doi: 10.3390/nu12102940.

Diederichsen ACP, Lindholt JS, Möller S, Øvrehus KA, Auscher S, Lambrechtsen J, et al. Vitamin K2 and D in Patients With Aortic Valve Calcification: A Randomized Double-Blinded Clinical Trial. Circulation. 2022 May 3;145(18):1387-1397. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.057008.

Grübler MR, Zittermann A, Verheyen ND, Trummer C, Theiler-Schwetz V, Keppel MH, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin D versus placebo supplementation on markers of systemic inflammation in hypertensive patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2021 Oct 28;31(11):3202-3209. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2021.07.028.

Schwetz V, Scharnagl H, Trummer C, Stojakovic T, Pandis M, Grübler MR, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and lipoprotein metabolism: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Lipidol. 2018 May-Jun;12(3):588-596.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2018.03.079

Bislev LS, Langagergaard Rødbro L, Rolighed L, Sikjaer T, Rejnmark L. Bone Microstructure in Response to Vitamin D3 Supplementation: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Calcif Tissue Int. 2019 Feb;104(2):160-170. doi: 10.1007/s00223-018-0481-6.

Trummer C, Schwetz V, Pandis M, Grübler MR, Verheyen N, Gaksch M, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on FGF23: a randomized-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar;58(2):697-703. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1672-7.

Francic V, Ursem SR, Dirks NF, Keppel MH, Theiler-Schwetz V, Trummer C, et al. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on its Metabolism and the Vitamin D Metabolite Ratio. Nutrients. 2019 Oct 21;11(10):2539. doi: 10.3390/nu11102539.

Trummer C, Schwetz V, Kollmann M, Wölfler M, Münzker J, Pieber TR, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS: a randomized-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Aug;58(5):2019-2028. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1760-8.

de Zwart AH, Dekker J, Roorda LD, van der Esch M, Lips P, van Schoor NM, et al. High-intensity versus low-intensity resistance training in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2022 Jul;36(7):952-967. doi: 10.1177/02692155211073039.

Pham H, Waterhouse M, Baxter C, Duarte Romero B, McLeod DSA, Armstrong BK, et al. Vitamin D Supplementation and Antibiotic Use in Older Australian Adults: An Analysis of Data From the D-Health Trial. J Infect Dis. 2022 Sep 21;226(6):949-957. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiac279.

Watcharanon W, Kaewrudee S, Soontrapa S, Somboonporn W, Srisaenpang P, Panpanit L, et al. Effects of sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D levels in postmenopausal women in rural Thailand: A randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2018 Oct;40:243-247. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.06.004.

Ackerman KE, Singhal V, Baskaran C, Slattery M, Campoverde Reyes KJ, Toth A, et al. Oestrogen replacement improves bone mineral density in oligo-amenorrhoeic athletes: a randomised clinical trial. Br J Sports Med. 2019 Feb;53(4):229-236. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-099723.

Zaromytidou E, Koufakis T, Dimakopoulos G, Drivakou D, Konstantinidou S, Antonopoulou V, et al. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic status of elderly people with prediabetes: a 12-month open-label, randomized-controlled study. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2022 Jan;15(1):89-97. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2022.2043153.

Trivedi M, Faridi MMA, Aggarwal A, Madhu SV, Malhotra RK. Oral Vitamin D Supplementation to Mothers During Lactation-Effect of 25(OH)D Concentration on Exclusively Breastfed Infants at 6 Months of Age: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial. Breastfeed Med. 2020 Apr;15(4):237-245. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2019.0102.

Alipour S, Shirzad N, Sepidarkish M, Saberi A, Bayani L, Hosseini L. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Breast Density Changes: A Clinical Trial Study. Nutr Cancer. 2018 Apr;70(3):425-430. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2018.1446088.

Grove-Laugesen D, Cramon PK, Malmstroem S, Ebbehoj E, Watt T, Hansen KW, et al. Effects of Supplemental Vitamin D on Muscle Performance and Quality of Life in Graves' Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Thyroid. 2020 May;30(5):661-671. doi: 10.1089/thy.2019.0634.

Dawson-Hughes B, Staten MA, Knowler WC, Nelson J, Vickery EM, LeBlanc ES, et al. Intratrial Exposure to Vitamin D and New-Onset Diabetes Among Adults With Prediabetes: A Secondary Analysis From the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) Study. Diabetes Care. 2020 Dec;43(12):2916-2922. doi: 10.2337/dc20-1765.

Michos ED, Mitchell CM, Miller ER 3rd, Sternberg AL, Juraschek SP, Schrack JA, et al. Rationale and design of the Study To Understand Fall Reduction and Vitamin D in You (STURDY): A randomized clinical trial of Vitamin D supplement doses for the prevention of falls in older adults. Contemp Clin Trials. 2020 Mar;90:105936. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2018.08.004

Usategui-Martín R, Pérez-Alonso M, Socorro-Briongos L, Ruiz-Mambrilla M, De Luis D, Linares L, et al. Estrogen receptor genes polymorphisms determine serum lipid profile in healthy postmenopausal women treated with calcium, vitamin D, and genistein. J Cell Biochem. 2019 Aug;120(8):13115-13120. doi: 10.1002/jcb.28584.

Tanakol R, Gül N, Üzüm AK, Aral F. Calcitriol treatment in patients with low vitamin D levels. Arch Osteoporos. 2018 Oct 23;13(1):114. doi: 10.1007/s11657-018-0529-2.

Rastogi A, Bhansali A, Khare N, Suri V, Yaddanapudi N, Sachdeva N, et al. Short term, high-dose vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19 disease: a randomised, placebo-controlled, study (SHADE study). Postgrad Med J. 2022 Feb;98(1156):87-90. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139065.

Andújar-Espinosa R, Salinero-González L, Illán-Gómez F, Castilla-Martínez M, Hu-Yang C, Ruiz-López FJ. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on asthma control in patients with vitamin D deficiency: the ACVID randomised clinical trial. Thorax. 2021 Feb;76(2):126-133. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2019-213936.

Karonova T, Stepanova A, Bystrova A, Jude EB. High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Microcirculation and Reduces Inflammation in Diabetic Neuropathy Patients. Nutrients. 2020 Aug 20;12(9):2518. doi: 10.3390/nu12092518.

Kamronrithisorn T, Manonai J, Vallibhakara SA, Sophonsritsuk A, Vallibhakara O. Effect of Vitamin D Supplement on Vulvovaginal Atrophy of the Menopause. Nutrients. 2020 Sep 21;12(9):2876. doi: 10.3390/nu12092876.

Khan DM, Jamil A, Randhawa FA, Butt NF, Malik U. Efficacy of oral vitamin D on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetics having vitamin D deficiency - A randomized controlled trial. J Pak Med Assoc. 2018 May;68(5):694-697.

Cojic M, Kocic R, Klisic A, Kocic G. The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Metabolic and Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A 6-Month Follow Up Randomized Controlled Study. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Aug 19;12:610893. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.610893.

Esfandiari A, Pourghassem Gargari B, Noshad H, Sarbakhsh P, Mobasseri M, Barzegari M, et al. The effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on some metabolic and inflammatory markers in diabetic nephropathy patients with marginal status of vitamin D: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2019 Jan-Feb;13(1):278-283. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.09.013.

Rostami M, Tehrani FR, Simbar M, Bidhendi Yarandi R, Minooee S, Hollis BW, et al. Effectiveness of Prenatal Vitamin D Deficiency Screening and Treatment Program: A Stratified Randomized Field Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 1;103(8):2936-2948. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00109.

Rowe CW, Arthurs S, O'Neill CJ, Hawthorne J, Carroll R, Wynne K, et al. High-dose preoperative cholecalciferol to prevent post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia: A randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2019 Feb;90(2):343-350. doi: 10.1111/cen.13897.

Ben-Porat T, Weiss R, Khalaileh A, Abu Gazala M, Kaluti D, Mintz Y, et al. The impact of preoperative vitamin administration on skeletal status following sleeve gastrectomy in young and middle-aged women: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Obes (Lond). 2021 Sep;45(9):1925-1936. doi: 10.1038/s41366-021-00845-y.

Shirvani A, Kalajian TA, Song A, Holick MF. Disassociation of Vitamin D's Calcemic Activity and Non-calcemic Genomic Activity and Individual Responsiveness: A Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Clinical Trial. Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 27;9(1):17685. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-53864-1.

Shirvani A, Kalajian TA, Song A, Allen R, Charoenngam N, Lewanczuk R, et al. Variable Genomic and Metabolomic Responses to Varying Doses of Vitamin D Supplementation. Anticancer Res. 2020 Jan;40(1):535-543. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.13982.

Guralnik JM, Sternberg AL, Mitchell CM, Blackford AL, Schrack J, Wanigatunga AA, et al. Effects of Vitamin D on Physical Function: Results From the STURDY Trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2022 Aug 12;77(8):1585-1592. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glab379.

Bassatne A, Jafari A, Kassem M, Mantzoros C, Rahme M, El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Delta-like 1 (DLK1) is a possible mediator of vitamin D effects on bone and energy metabolism. Bone. 2020 Sep;138:115510. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2020.115510.

Macdonald HM, Reid IR, Gamble GD, Fraser WD, Tang JC, Wood AD. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Threshold for the Effects of Vitamin D Supplements on Bone Density: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2018 Aug;33(8):1464-1469. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3442.

Curtis EM, Parsons C, Maslin K, D'Angelo S, Moon RJ, Crozier SR, et al. Bone turnover in pregnancy, measured by urinary CTX, is influenced by vitamin D supplementation and is associated with maternal bone health: findings from the Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study (MAVIDOS) trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Nov 8;114(5):1600-1611. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab264.

Curtis EM, Krstic N, Cook E, D'Angelo S, Crozier SR, Moon RJ, et al. Gestational Vitamin D Supplementation Leads to Reduced Perinatal RXRA DNA Methylation: Results From the MAVIDOS Trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2019 Feb;34(2):231-240. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3603.

Cai Y, Wanigatunga AA, Mitchell CM, Urbanek JK, Miller ER 3rd, Juraschek SP, et al. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on frailty in older adults at risk for falls. BMC Geriatr. 2022 Apr 10;22(1):312. doi: 10.1186/s12877-022-02888-w.

Waterhouse M, Sanguineti E, Baxter C, Duarte Romero B, McLeod DSA, English DR, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and risk of falling: outcomes from the randomized, placebo-controlled D-Health Trial. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Dec;12(6):1428-1439. doi: 10.1002/jcsm.12759.

Karefylakis C, Särnblad S, Ariander A, Ehlersson G, Rask E, Rask P. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight men-a randomized controlled trial. Endocrine. 2018 Sep;61(3):388-397. doi: 10.1007/s12020-018-1665-6.

Corcoy R, Mendoza LC, Simmons D, Desoye G, Adelantado JM, Chico A, Devlieger R, van Assche A, Galjaard S, Timmerman D, Lapolla A, Dalfra MG, Bertolotto A, Harreiter J, Wender-Ozegowska E, Zawiejska A, Kautzky-Willer A, Dunne FP, Damm P, Mathiesen ER, Jensen DM, Andersen LLT, Tanvig M, Hill DJ, Jelsma JG, Snoek FJ, Köfeler H, Trötzmüller M, Lips P, van Poppel MNM. The DALI vitamin D randomized controlled trial for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention: No major benefit shown besides vitamin D sufficiency. Clin Nutr. 2020 Mar;39(3):976-984. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2019.04.006.

Rasouli N, Brodsky IG, Chatterjee R, Kim SH, Pratley RE, Staten MA, Pittas AG; D2d Research Group. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion in Prediabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2022 Jan 1;107(1):230-240. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab649.

Goyal A, Dabas A, Shah D, Malhotra RK, Dewan P, Madhu SV, Gupta P. Sunlight Exposure vs Oral Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Indian Pediatr. 2022 Nov 15;59(11):852-858.

Desouza C, Chatterjee R, Vickery EM, Nelson J, Johnson KC, Kashyap SR, Lewis MR, Margolis K, Pratley R, Rasouli N, Sheehan PR, Pittas AG; D2d Research Group. Electronic address: The effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk in patients with prediabetes: A secondary analysis of the D2d study. J Diabetes Complications. 2022 Aug;36(8):108230.

Riek AE, Oh J, Darwech I, Worthy V, Lin X, Ostlund RE Jr, Zhang RM, Bernal-Mizrachi C. Vitamin D3 supplementation decreases a unique circulating monocyte cholesterol pool in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Mar;177:187-192. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.09.011. }

Javed Z, Papageorgiou M, Deshmukh H, Kilpatrick ES, Mann V, Corless L, Abouda G, Rigby AS, Atkin SL, Sathyapalan T. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Hormones, and Liver Markers in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Nutrients. 2019 Jan 17;11(1):188. doi: 10.3390/nu11010188.

Bhatt SP, Misra A, Pandey RM, Upadhyay AD, Gulati S, Singh N. Vitamin D Supplementation in Overweight/obese Asian Indian Women with Prediabetes Reduces Glycemic Measures and Truncal Subcutaneous Fat: A 78 Weeks Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial (PREVENT-WIN Trial). Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 14;10(1):220. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56904-y.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.